Ancient Peruvian Finds

DFN: Interesting article about a recent Incan find; Nancy has lots more interesting articles on her blog site (below).

Tuesday, October 27, 2009

ANCIENT PERUVIAN FINDS

Nancy B.

http://archaeologybriefs.blogspot.com/2009/10/ancient-peruvian-finds.html

After three years of work in the town of Pacopampa (Peru), a team of archaeologists led by Yuji Seki have found the outlines of an ancient temple that would have formed part of a larger complex located 20 minutes from the modern town of the same name.

But far more impressive is what they’ve found buried inside the temple. The team discovered the tomb of a woman, whose social position quickly became evident. On the highest terrace of the San Pedro mountain in what is today Chota in Cajamarca, the birth of a girl began what was to be a new episode of the Formative Period some 3000 years ago.

Born in the archaeological complex that we now call San Pedro de Pacopampa, the
healthy baby girl would be raised to one day lead her people. This is the conclusion arrived at by Yuji Seki, lead archaeologist from the National University of Ethnology in Osaka, Japan. When his team found this tomb of an elite woman, they also found details that shine new light on this little-studied period of history.

The process to recover the remains was long and arduous. It was during this time that Seki realized there was a detail that confirmed a hypothesis he had made five year earlier when he began his investigations in this part of the northern Peruvian Andes. He discovered that the Lady of Pacopampa had a deformation in the back part of her skull, as well as other mysterious elements such as a bluish substance and cinnabar – usually found in the burials of the most important rulers of ancient
Peru. According to Kazuhiro Uzawa who studied the skull, the deformation was clearly pre-planned and deliberate. To do it, from the first days of life, planks of wood
would have been tied to her head; the deformation process ended when the girl was around 3 years old.

This discovery confirmed Seki’s views following the effort to study the development of political power during the period of 1000 BCE. It was a great find because it was only until recently that it was thought that during this period there existed no divisive social classes. The presence of this person is further, even conclusive proof that there indeed were. Seki is certain that the girl born 3000 years ago was destined from birth to be the leader of their society, something that did indeed happen when she reached adulthood. “We don’t know if she was a queen or just a tribal leader, or if she performed as some sort of advisor or high priestess religious figure”, he explained.

The excavation team discovered the tomb when a single large rock was found beneath the temple’s main platform. It was just one of various rocks covering the tomb deep below. After removing them all, they could see the unmistakable shine of gold. Found were 20cm long gold earrings with feather designs along with many beads. The leader would have died aged 30 or 40 years. Based on her teeth, height and bone structure she would have had a different diet from ordinary people, measuring 1.55m while the average male of the time measured 1.5m. During months of work, the team found five other tombs around the area, but only one was of the elite class, revealing that she was unusually important.

Seki explains that the Pacopampa discoveries show that a tendency towards social inequality had begun to form at least as early as 900 BCE.

Source: En Perú Blog (19 October 2009)

Uncanny Archaelogy – Halloween

DFN: Topical insights into Halloween, one of my favorite holidays. You’ll have to go to the website, and follow any of the subheading that you’d like to get information on.

Uncanny Archaelogy
http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/halloween/

Uncanny archaeology springs from many roots. Today, Halloween–once All Hallows Eve, now All Saints Day–is a time for children to trick-or-treat costumed as super heroes, the latest characters invented by corporate marketing departments, or more traditionally as witches or ghosts. But some Halloween traditions are related to an ancient Celtic harvest festival, Samhain, and Celtic rituals, not all of them pleasant. In many past cultures the boundary between the living and the dead was thought to be shaky at times, as with Samhain. Those beings believed able to cross it–in spectral form as ghosts or as walking undead, such as vampires and zombies–were to be feared. Augustus’ boyhood home was haunted according to Suetonius, the biographer of the caesars, but there is more than just written evidence for belief in the undead centuries ago, as vampire burials attest. And throughout history people have used love spells, protective charms, and curses to gain their ends. Were they successful? We don’t know, but we have their voodoo dolls and lead tablets engraved with deadly appeals to supernatural forces. We also have the remains of witchy rituals, as well as evidence of counter-rituals intended to fend off attacks by witches. All of these beliefs have left a surprisingly strong–and often bizarre or gruesome–mark on the archaeological record. It’s uncanny, but real archaeology. (Well, okay, the zombie attack in Predynastic Egypt article is a spoof.)

Halloween

Halloween’s Celtic Roots
Folklorist Jenny Butler talks about the Celtic feast Samhain and its relationship to Halloween, exploring how the past and present mix in the night of costumes and jack o’ lanterns

Celtic Sacrifice
Grim deposits of butchered bones attest ritual slaughter by Galatians at Gordion in the 3rd century B.C. Are there connections to divination rituals and Samhain?

Exorcising a Plague Vampire
Matteo Borrini, who recently excavated an “exorcised” skull from a 16th-century grave on the Venetian island of Lazzaretto Nuovo, discusses the reality behind belief in malicious, pestilent plague vampires

The Vampire of Lesbos
Eight-inch iron spikes nail down the identification of a 19th-century vampire burial near Mytilene

Zombies

Archaeology of the Undead
Zombie expert Max Brooks–author of The Zombie Survival Guide: Complete Protection From the Living Dead and World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War–explains humanity’s oldest struggle

Zombie Attack at Hierakonpolis
Weighing the evidence for and dating of a Solanum virus outbreak in early Egypt, archaeologist Renee Friedman and her colleagues look at clues from the past and establish protocols for containing cases in the future

Witches

Witches of Cornwall
Macabre evidence of witchcraft surfaces in an archaeologist’s front yard as excavations reveal pits lined with skins of swans, and even a black cat, and filled with swan’s eggs. And, in a nearby spring-fed pool lined with white quartz, a hodgepodge of offerings including part of a cauldron

An American Witch Bottle
Discovery of a mid-18th-century witch bottle in Pennsylvania proves that practicing witches traveled to the colonies from England

Opening a Witch Bottle
For the first time, a witch bottle, buried in the 17th century to ward off spells, has been opened under laboratory conditions

Fine Wine & A Piss-Poor Vintage
Two corked 17th-century wine bottles have yielded strikingly different contents

Magic & Curses

When Spells Worked Magic
In ancient times, a curse could help you win in the stadium or in the courts, and a plea addressed to a demon could bring you the woman of your dreams

Curse of the Stolen Cloak
A rare Roman-era curse tablet found in England asks that the Celtic god Maglus punish a thief

Curses of Caesarea
Why were 50 curse tablets buried at the headquarters of the Roman governor of Judea?

Curse of the Balsam Cookers
What was the secret protected by a curse inscribed on the mosaic floor of an ancient synagogue on the shores of the Dead Sea?

Mystery Stone – Knights Templar

DFN: Knights Templar, need I say more.

Mystery stone found near church linked to Knights Templar
Published Date: 27 October 2009
By CLAIRE SMITH

A MYSTERIOUS carved stone has been uncovered alongside a 12th-century church associated with the Knights Templar.

What appears to be the carved top of a sarcophagus was unearthed when builders were excavating and reinforcing a wall alongside the old ruined church in Temple, Midlothian.

But the inscriptions, which include symbols similar to those found in Viking monuments, in medieval graves and in West Highland Celtic carvings, have baffled archaeologists.

Crispin Phillips, who is renovating a house alongside The Old Parish Church, said: “I was on a mission to repair the wall – which was falling into the graveyard. We got near the bottom of the foundations and found something buried there.

“We found one stone carved with a cross and then another with these carvings on it.”

Crispin Phillips discovered the stone while repairing a wall

He added: “We spent about half an hour in philosophical discussions about what we should do about it. I felt we should do something, rather than just bury it again.”

Mr Phillips contacted Historic Scotland and East Lothian Council, whose archaeologists cover Midlothian.

He said the stone had been photographed and recorded but he was still unclear whether further investigations would be carried out. “One of the archaeologists who came out told us it was probably from the early 12th century,” he added. “But really I’m still in limbo about what to do about it.”

Historian and author John Ritchie said the stone raised many questions. “It is a crude carving, quite primitive, but I have never seen anything like it in my life,” he said. “It has a whole series of symbols on it and the symbols are very interesting.

“The symbols at the bottom look like Viking sun compasses, while the dials at the top look a little bit like a Celtic cross but with notches carved on them.”

Expert David Connolly, of Connolly Heritage Consultancy, said he believed the stone was from the 13th or 14th century.

“It is a significant site because it was the Templar Preceptory for Scotland,” he said. “I think from the condition, it may once have been set inside the church – which was once much bigger,” he added.

“He could be a Templar, he could be a Hospitaller, he could just be a knight who wanted to be buried there – but the heraldry is like nothing anyone has seen before.”

He added that he hoped further study of the stone was possible in the future.

Mr Phillips said he planned to complete the rebuilding of the 17th-century graveyard wall and would build an arch into it so the half-buried carvings could still be seen by interested scholars.

However historian and author Michael Turnbull said he doubted the find was significant: “There were certainly Templars there but this might be a fake.”

Village legend tells of long-lost buried treasure

THE village of Temple in Midlothian takes its name from the Knights Templar, who once had their Scottish Preceptory – their headquarters – there.

The ruined chapel, which nestles in the valley at the foot of the village, is all that remains of what was once an abbey founded by the Templars on lands gifted by David I of Scotland in 1127.

Founded during the Crusades, the Templars was a religious order of knights whose mission was to protect Christians in the Holy Land.

Some say they invented international banking, with a system of credit letters used to pass funds to people fighting in the Crusades. The Templars certainly grew rich and powerful. According to some accounts they were the holders of treasures from Jerusalem.

But the organisation came under suspicion from the royalty of Europe and the Catholic Church. Templars were hunted down and burned at the stake.

Legend has it some of those fleeing persecution hid in this Midlothian village – bringing their treasure with them.

According to local legend some of this treasure still lies buried in Temple: “Twixt the oak and the elm tree/You will find buried the millions free.”

Practical Advice – Surfacing Interviews

Linda,

If you’re in a job search mode, and trying to assess whether your resume is up to ‘par’, try this approach:

1. Get a hold of the FENG SF Chapter Listing
2. Look for ‘alumni’ at companies where you’d like to work, or like to get an informational interview
3. Send an email to the alumni, asking them to give you feedback on your resume.

Make it clear your not asking them for a job, you’re asking for their advice and counsel.

At a minimum, this should help you fine-tune your resume, and maybe help get you infront of some hiring managers.

Doug

Ten Reasons to Run from a Job Opportunity

DFN: I recently discovered glassdoor and have postings emailed to me. They also sporadically ‘rate’ working a companies, in the same message was a rating of Goldman Sachs, very high rating in NYC (90+/- approval rating), but as the offices got further west, the rating declined to less than 70%. These are called ‘insider perspectives’.

Ten Reasons To Run From A Job Opportunity
Posted: 28 Oct 2009 09:15 AM PDT
From: Glassdoor.com Blog

One of the worst things that can happen to a talented job seeker is to get caught in the Vortex — that swirling, chaotic place where the hiring-process movement gets to be so fast and furious that it’s hard to keep up with it.

“They want me in New York next week to see the CEO!” you say breathlessly to your roommate.

“Have they told you the title or the salary yet?” your roommate wants to know.

“No, but isn’t it exciting?!” you exclaim.

That’s the Vortex. In the midst of all the phone calls and interviews and paperwork flying around, it’s easy to lose your bearings. You’re so excited and so flattered to be complimented and sought after that you can become disoriented. Then, you might forget that you have a stake in this deal greater than just a job offer.

Accepting the wrong job may be worse than another month or two of unemployment. Taking the wrong job can trash your resume and your emotional health in one fell swoop. If you take a job you hate, will you have energy to work all day in the pit of hell and conduct another stealth job search at night? And how will you explain another job search after only a few months in the new job? For these reasons, it’s important to keep your wits about you and pay close attention to any red flags during the employer-and-candidate tango.

Here are ten warning signs that may signal “Get out of Dodge”:

If you get a call from someone wanting to interview you based on a resume you sent three months ago, you should get some explanation for the delay. No explanation means: “We couldn’t care less about you. You want to come for an interview, or should we call the next person?”

If you’re also expected to remember the details of the job you applied for three months ago and if the phone screener is impatient with you for having forgotten the fine points of the role, take warning.

Once you’re phone screened, a face-to-face interview should take place within a week or two. Three, four or five weeks of waiting says: “It’s all about our needs, Bucko. You’re not our highest priority.” A perfectly reasonable question (if you can get anyone live on the phone) is: “What is the time frame for having this new person start?”

It’s normal to have interviews delayed and rescheduled. People are busy – we all understand that. Two or three delays and reschedules for a scheduled interview is a sign of a shoddy selection process. Your time is valuable too.

Likewise, if you’re kept waiting for more than 35 minutes in the reception area or left to languish in a small conference room in a deserted corner of the building, that’s a bad sign. If they treat you this badly when you still have the option to bail, how will they treat you once you’re on the payroll?

If they ask for everything they’ll ever need from you, including your references, a writing sample and a twenty-page questionnaire, before you’ve met anyone in person, you’ve been handed a gift from the universe – namely, the knowledge that you would hate this job if you got it. Run away, because this employer does not value you or your talents. One friend of mine was asked by the HR person (on her first interview) for a voided check from her checkbook – so that in case she was hired, they could start direct deposit on the spot! She wanted to ask the HR lady: “Are you familiar with the concept of identity theft?” but she didn’t – she said “I’m sorry, I left my checkbook at home” and sent a quick ‘thanks but no thanks’ letter once she reached her house.

If the hiring process is rushed, that’s not a good sign. It means that employee turnover is killing them, or that the quality of the hire they’re making now is not all that important – because they think nothing of hiring and firing people on a dime. You’re free to slow down the process, of course, asking for more information and scheduling interviews when it’s convenient for you. If you’re getting pressure at this stage (”The VP is only available at six a.m. on Sunday morning, and only for twenty minutes, so be there early”) it’s your cue to get on the bus, Gus.

If every interview conversation hinges on salary, be wary. Compensation is important, but if everyone you meet with has his or her own spin on why the company pays bupkus but is nonetheless a great place to work, take heed. If cash reserves are low, they can offer you flexibility in hours, and/or let you work from home some or most of the time. Unthinkable? Maybe it’s time for you to think again.

If they won’t let you meet the team members when you ask to, flee. Bosses don’t let unhappy chickens out of their coops to meet prospective new chickens.
If the employer demands your past W-2s as proof of your prior earnings, run away. They’re business people – can’t they determine what you’re worth without relying on some other employer’s practice (and dragging your personal, financial history into it)? You don’t need to work among turkeys like that.

Lastly, if they won’t show you any relevant document you ask for – from the employee handbook to the written sales compensation plan to the medical insurance plan description – take a hike. Life is too short to get caught up with non-legit employers, and sad to say, they exist. A great job where you’re respected is around the next corner and the quicker you leave this Mickey Mouse outfit in a cloud of dust behind you, the sooner you’ll find it.

Common Mistakes in Resume, and in interviewing

DFN: Two most common blunders, in a resume, or in an interview, 1) Not focusing on the company’s needs 2) Not focusing on results. I inadvertently interviewed recently, and I focused solely on the companies needs. The interview turned out well, more later.

10/27/2009

Avoid The 2 Most Common Resume Blunders
Compliments of David Perry and Kevin Donlin
http://guerrillajobhunting.typepad.com/guerrilla_job_hunting/2009/10/avoid-the-2-most-common-resume-blunders.html

Mistake #1: Focusing on you and your needs.
This is the worst mistake you can make. Unfortunately, it’s also the most common.

Look, no employer wants to hire you. Employers hate hiring! They only hire employees when they have problems to solve. And no employer wants to spend a lot of time hiring you, either, just as you wouldn’t want to spend more time in a dentist’s chair than you had to.

So, your résumé must quickly answer the one question that’s on every employer’s mind: "What can you do for me?"

Unfortunately, most résumés don’t.

Most résumés start out like this: "Seeking a position where I can utilize my skills in an atmosphere with potential for career advancement …" And so on. This sounds fine and logical to the person writing the résumé. But it completely alienates the person READING the résumé. Because this person — your potential employer — has his own problems. He could care less about your career aspirations or desire to make more money.

Instead, tell the employer how you can add value to his/her operations, or contribute to efficiency. Notice this opening summary again:

SUMMARY

Seeking a position where 10 years of sales, marketing and management experience will add value to operations.

Now, what employer wouldn’t want to talk to someone like you, who’s offered to add value to his operations? You could also say: "… will contribute to operations" or "… will add to profitability." The exact words don’t matter. What does matter is your focus on helping the employer meet his goals. If you do that, your career will advance and you’ll make more money.

Mistake #2: Focusing on responsibilities instead of results.
While it’s important to tell the reader what you’ve done at each job, it’s far more important to spend most of your time talking about what you accomplished and how you made yourself valuable to past employers.

It’s easy to do. Just think back on your daily duties. What good things happened when you did your job well? Write them down! Focus on results. The more specific, the better!

Instead of saying this: "Responsibilities included (but were not limited to) implementation of policies and procedures, training of new employees, interfacing with subordinates and vendors, and light correspondence duties."

Say this: "Worked with staff and vendors to increase product turnover by 15% and sales by 23% in five months. Also trained 14 new employees, five of whom were rapidly promoted."

Action Step: I’ve read close to 5,000 resumes over the years, and more than 80% made one or both of these blunders. Avoiding them will put your resume ahead of the pack.

NOTE: you can download a proven how-to guide on resume writing, with dozens of copy-and-paste examples. It’s called Resume and Cover Letter Secrets Revealed and you can find it at this link – www.gresumes.com/book.htm


Doug

The New Rules of Angel Investing

DFN: 1.) Be self funding 2.) Be Realistic about valuation 3.) Have Milestones 4.) Practice your pitch 5.) Get a coach (Angel)

The New Rules of Angel Investing
By KERMIT PATTISON
Published: October 28, 2009
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/29/business/smallbusiness/29angels.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1

Angels still have wings, but they aren’t flying quite so high.

Quick Tips:
Bootstrap as long as you can. Finding early ways to get revenue.
Get to break even quickly and remember that VC financing has gotten harder to obtain.
Be realistic about valuations. Be coachable.
Practice pitching and be prepared to make your case to dozens or hundreds of angels.
Look for angels who complement your strengths and can help you with more than money.

Suggested Readings and Resources:
An overview of angel investing and a list of resources from Angel Capital Education Foundation.
What Entrepreneurs Should Know About Angels from the Angel Capital Education Foundation.(pdf)
A directory of angel investors from the Angel Capital Education Association.

The rules of the game of angel investing have changed in the post-crisis world. The average deal size shrank by 31 percent in the first half of this year, according to a recent study by the Center for Venture Research at the University of New Hampshire. The study shows that total angel investments fell to $9.1 billion in the first half of 2009, a 27 percent decline from the same period last year, but the number of companies getting venture investments actually increased by 6 percent, to 24,500.

Angels are still financing deals, but at lower valuations and with more specific milestones. They have grown more picky and less tolerant of risk. “What you’re seeing now is a real flight to quality,” said David S. Rose, chairman of New York Angels. “If you are the real deal, you can get funded.”

What’s the real deal? Angels are looking for companies with more modest capital requirements. They seek companies that bootstrap, beat quicker paths to profitability and have proven management teams. “The most striking change is angel investors are way more discerning about where they deploy their capital,” said Bruce Cerullo, a Boston-based angel investor who specializes in health care. “Now groups like ours are looking for more fully baked ideas that are much closer to revenue generation.”

Do It Yourself

There has been a sea change in risk sensitivity; the more self-sufficiency a company demonstrates, the less risky it appears. “Bootstrap it as long as you possibly can to validate your business model and to get some traction,” Mr. Cerullo said. “The more traction you have, the more leverage you are going to have in a valuation negotiation with an angel or private equity investor.”

Entrepreneurs should find ways to finance their own growth: working without salary, moonlighting, seeking grants, running lean operations and focusing on an aspect of the business that can generate revenue.

Bear in mind that the worst of times for the economy can be the best of times for starting a company. Labor is cheap and plentiful. The costs of starting an Internet-based company have fallen sharply thanks to cheaper technology, including open-source software. “Work hard to figure out if there’s a business plan you can pursue where your capital requirements are zero,” said Ian Sobieski, founder and managing director of the Silicon Valley-based Band of Angels Fund. “The easiest way to raise money is to not absolutely have to raise money.”

Angels are looking for companies that can get to break even on the angel investment. In return, they are willing to be more patient, Mr. Rose said. In the old days, angels invested with the idea that they would finance the company at an early stage, then venture capitalists would step in with a large injection of cash that allowed it to blast off on a hockey-stick growth trajectory.

“Now we’re prepared to give up the immediate hockey stick in exchange for you being able to reliably get to break even on our cash while building value for the company,” Mr. Rose said. “The minute the market comes back, we can inject V.C. cash — and then you have the hockey stick.”

Be Realistic About Valuations

Valuations have fallen sharply — as much as 40 percent, Mr. Rose estimates. The upside is that the costs of starting a company have fallen, too.

Yet some entrepreneurs still cling to over-inflated valuations. They get hung up on achieving the highest valuation without regard to how it may undermine their long-term prospects.

“The biggest error they make, in my experience, is they focus solely on this round and take money based solely on whether they can fill out the round at the absolute highest valuation,” said John Huston, who invests with Ohio TechAngels and is chairman of the Angel Capital Association. “They do not select investors who know the market and are willing to write follow-on checks.”

Unrealistic valuations will make serious investors roll their eyes. Even if entrepreneurs can get above-market valuations, they run the risk of getting a lower valuation on a subsequent round, a phenomenon known as the “deadly down round.” Mr. Huston said inflated valuations are a sign that the company picked the wrong investor and “took money from neophytes who were only attuned to this round and the promises of grandiose success.”

Lay Out Milestones

Mr. Huston warns that entrepreneurs should beware of “one-check Willy” — the angel who finances just one round. Instead, entrepreneurs should look for angels who are willing to discuss long-term plans with milestones and follow-on investments that guide the company “from here to liquidity.”

The exit market has changed drastically because of a decline in mergers, acquisitions and initial public offerings. As a result, venture capital firms increasingly are concentrating on their existing portfolios and forcing angels to support start-ups for longer.

Many angels now expect to write checks for follow-on rounds because they can no longer count on V.C. money being available down the road. John Morris, chairman emeritus of Tech Coast Angels in Southern California, said that angels were now keeping reserves of 200 to 300 percent — up from zero a few years ago.

“That’s probably the single biggest difference in angel land,” said Mr. Morris. “Angels are learning about reserves and the need to parse out the money in a series of tranches, keeping some dry powder for the next round.”

Practice Your Pitch

Get good at pitching the same way major leaguers do: practice, practice, practice. Entrepreneurs should be ready to present a full business plan, a 20-minute PowerPoint, an executive summary and a two-minute elevator pitch (which is what gets you in the door in the first place). Rehearse with anybody who can offer good advice. Go to industry events. Many angel groups hold quick-pitch events where entrepreneurs are invited to make brief presentations.

Susan Preston, general partner of CalCEF, a clean-energy angel fund in San Francisco and author of two books on angel investing, said entrepreneurs might have to pitch to 50 or 100 investors before they got venture funds: “In tight times, only the absolute stars rise to the top to receive funding. If they want to have a chance, they’ve got to be well prepared.”

Angels often don’t advertise themselves because they don’t want to be deluged by suitors. And lists or directories have their limits (although this one from the Angel Capital Education Association can help you get started). “Look farther, network a little harder,” said Jeff Sohl, director of the Center for Venture Research. “Turn over those rocks like you should have been doing all along, rather than taking the easy route of Googling and looking at the first 10 hits. That might have worked in the go-go times of 2000, but it doesn’t even get you close now.”

Consider both lone-wolf angels and organized groups. Angels tend to focus on regional companies but increasingly are specializing in niches like medical devices, technology and clean energy.

One classic mistake is to look at angels solely as sources of cash. Ms. Preston considers money to be an angel’s third most important contribution after expertise and networking. She urges entrepreneurs to scrutinize potential investors: What expertise can they provide? How do their strengths complement your weaknesses? Who can they introduce you to?

Coached by an Angel

Murat Ozsu weathered the recent sea change in angel investing — and survived to tell about it.

Mr. Ozsu had spent more than two years bootstrapping his Long Island-based start-up, innRoad, an online platform that helps independent hotels manage guest bookings. He had moved to a smaller house, borrowed from family and friends, worked out of his son’s bedroom and spent many nights laboring into the wee hours so he could coordinate with his software development team in India. He pitched to hundreds of angels before he attracted the interest of a few investors who began coaching him. Just when he had built up a base of customers and was poised to get financing, his plans hit a major snag: the financial collapse of 2008.

Mr. Ozsu took his plan and ripped it apart. On the advice of his angels, he recalibrated for leaner times and cut his capital requirements in half. “These are all guys who have run their own companies,” he said, “and they’ve all been through this before. I’d much rather learn from other people’s mistakes. I’m going to make my own mistakes, so why make theirs?”

Ultimately, innRoad won the backing of 15 angels and a New York State investment program and raised $1.2 million — twice its goal and, surprisingly, the same amount it had planned to seek before the crisis. InnRoad recently did a second investment round of $300,000, which Mr. Ozsu said would sustain the company until it reached breakeven next summer.

Along the way, he said he learned to think like an investor — often a difficult step for entrepreneurs who have poured their souls into their companies. “Trying to raise money is not the goal,” Mr. Ozsu said. “The goal is a business plan that makes sense on its own merits. Money is just one of the tools that you need.”


Doug

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